GASIFICATION

GASIFICATION

Gasification technology was originally developed in the early 1800s

Gasification technology was originally developed in the early 1800s to produce coal gas, which was used for lighting. Waste gasification was developed more than 40 years ago, and can be divided into 3 primary categories: (i) pyrolysis, which is a low oxygen system operating at temperatures between approximately 600 and 800 °C; (ii) Air Fed Gasification Systems, which typically operate at temperatures ranging between 800 °C and 1,800 °C; and (iii) Plasma or Plasma Arc Systems, which operate at 2,000 °C to 2,800 °C. Studies by the US Department of Energy [2002], US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) [1996], and Alameda Power & Telecom [2004] concluded that conventional, or Air Fed, Gasification Systems provided the most cost-effective and clean form of waste to energy systems for MSW. G3P’s complete Air Fed Gasification System provides clean, reliable power, utilizes renewable resources as fuel, and consists of five stages of treatment. These treatment stages are essential to the efficient and clean operation of any gasification system, and are designed to minimize the quantity of ash generated by the system, minimize the quantity of heavy metals and hazardous constituents in the flue gas, improve the energy efficiency, and provide the highest level of performance and protection for human health and the environment available in the market place. The five treatment stages for Production of Premium renewable Synthetic Fuel are summarized as follows:

Power Production Facility

Power Production Facility

On the Power Production Line the Synthesis gas is passed through an HRSG

On the Power Production Line the Synthesis gas is passed through an HRSG Boiler to produce high temperature and pressure steam. The steam is fed to a high efficiency steam turbine to generate clean, green, renewable electric energy. The flue gas is processed through a Cyclone to remove particulate matter, an Acid Gas Removal Unit to remove HCl, H2S, and HNO3, an Electrostatic Precipitator to remove sub 2.5 micron particulate matter, a Bag House with carbon injection to remove particulate matter, heavy metals, and organics, and is then discharged out the stack at a temperature of 140 to 200 deg C, which prevents condensation. The Power Production Line produces parasitic loading for the electricity needed for the facility of clean, green, electrical power 24 hours per day, 365 days per year.

FUEL FACILITY

FUEL FACILITY

Our Oxygen Fed Gasification Diesel Fuel Production Facility converts the

Our Oxygen Fed Gasification Diesel Fuel Production Facility converts the waste into synthesis gas consisting primarily of Carbon Monoxide (CO), Hydrogen (H2), Nitrogen (N2), Water (H2O), and Carbon Dioxide (CO2). This synthesis gas is then converted to Premium Renewable Synthetic Diesel Fuel using the Fischer Tropsch process, which was originally invented in Germany in 1923. The process has been used in over 114,000 facilities worldwide as a key component of gas to liquids technology, producing a synthetic lubrication oil and synthetic fuel, typically from coal, natural gas, or biomass. The environmental performance of our Oxygen Fed Gasification Diesel Fuel Production Facility is expected to far exceed the environmental performance of the Geo Plasma system. The Premium Renewable Synthetic Diesel Fuel (the Fuel) produced by the Fischer Tropsch process will have a Cetane rating of 70 to 76, compared to 40 for No. 2 Diesel. The sulfur content of the Fuel will be essentially zero. Engines running on the Fuel will reduce emissions by 15 to 35 percent, and improved performance by 2 to 15 percent, depending on the age of the engine.

Gasification is Not Incineration

Gasification is Not Incineration

The gasification process represents significant advances over incineration.

The gasification process represents significant advances over incineration. In order to understand the advantages of gasification when compared to incineration, it’s important to understand the differences between the two processes. Incineration literally means to render to ash. Incineration uses MSW as a fuel, burning it with high volumes of air to form carbon dioxide and heat. In a waste-to-energy plant that uses incineration, these hot gases are used to make steam, which is then used to generate electricity. Gasification converts MSW to a usable synthesis gas, or syngas. It is the production of this syngas that makes gasification so different from incineration. In the gasification process, the MSW is not a fuel, but a feedstock for a hightemperature chemical conversion process. Instead of producing just heat and electricity, as is done in a waste-to-energy plant using incineration, the syngas produced by gasification can be turned into higher value commercial products such as transportation fuels, chemicals, fertilizers, and even substitute natural gas. Incineration cannot achieve this. One of the concerns with incineration of MSW is the formation and reformation of toxic dioxins and furans, especially from PVC-containing plastics. These toxins end up in exhaust streams by three pathways:

Incineration does not allow control of these processes

Incineration does not allow control of these processes, and all clean-up occurs after combustion. One of the important advantages of gasification is that the syngas can be cleaned of contaminants prior to its use, eliminating many of the types of after-the-fact (post-combustion) emission control systems required in incineration plants. The clean syngas can be used in reciprocating engines or turbines to generate electricity or further processed to produce hydrogen, substitute natural gas, chemicals, fertilizers or transportation fuels. The ash produced from gasification is different from what is produced from an incinerator. While incinerator ash is considered safe for use as alternative daily cover on landfills, there are concerns with its use in commercial products. In high-temperature gasification, the ash actually flows from the gasifier in a molten form, where it is quench-cooled, forming a glassy, non-leachable slag that can be used for making cement, roofing shingles, as an asphalt filler or for sandblasting. Some gasifiers are designed to recover melted metals in a separate stream, further taking advantage of the ability of gasification technology to enhance recycling.